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qmail-ldap Installation

You will need to get the following software:

From your distro install slapd (openldap), phpldapadmin, daemontools-run, and ucspi-tcp-ipv6.


  • <uri strref=“”/> [ezmlm notes|#ezmlm] - mailing list manager ( Requires the dash-trick patch if you plan to set up LDAP users to have mailing lists, rather than just real users )

Untar qmail, and apply the current qmail-ldap patch: <pre> tar xvzf qmail-1.03.tar.gz cd qmail-1.03; gzip -dc ../qmail-ldap-1.03-xxxxxxxx.patch.gz | patch -p1 </pre>

    You will need to edit the qmail-1.03/Makefile and make sure that the definitions at the top are correct. Especially make sure the entries for
    are uncommented!

<list><ul><li>Edit /etc/openldap/slapd.conf and replace where possible:<ul><li><tt>schemacheck</tt> - to on</li><li><tt>suffix</tt> - use either <tt>'dc=domianname, dc=com'</tt> -or- <tt>'o=~MrZesty, c=CA'</tt> (organization, country)</li><li><tt>rootdn</tt> - <tt>'cn=Manager, dc=mrzesty, dc=net'</tt> - must match suffix above</li><li><tt>rootpw</tt>- change your password from 'secret'</li><li><tt>index objectclass,mail,~mailAlternateAddress,uid eq</tt></li></ul></li></ul></list>

    Edit <tt>/usr/local/etc/openldap/ldap.conf</tt> and set your BASE dn:
  • <tt>BASE dc=mrzesty, dc=net</tt>

<p> Copy <tt>qmail-1.03/qmail.schema</tt> to <tt><em>usr/local/etc/openldap/schema</em></tt> and add the following 3 lines to <tt>/usr/local/etc/openldap/slapd.conf</tt> after the first include line</p>

include /etc/openldap/schema/cosine.schema
include /etc/openldap/schema/nis.schema
include /etc/openldap/schema/qmail.schema

<list><ul><li>The idea here is that all email will be handled through virtual accounts, not <tt>/etc/passwd</tt> accounts. Create those now:<ul><li><tt>mkdir -p /var/qmail</tt></li><li>Add a group <tt>vmail</tt></li><li>Add a user <tt>vmail</tt>, home directory is <tt>/var/qmail/maildirs</tt>, and shell is <tt>/bin/true</tt></li></ul></li></ul></list>

  /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 200 vmail
  /usr/sbin/useradd -u 200 -g vmail -d /var/qmail/maildirs -m -k /dev/null -s /bin/true -c 'qmail vmail user' vmail

<list><ul><li>Create the other users and groups needed for qmail to operate: Create 2 groups <tt>nofiles</tt> and <tt>qmail</tt>, then create these users:</li></ul></list> <table><tr valign=“top”><td colspan=“1”> User </td><td colspan=“1”> Primary Group </td><td colspan=“1”> Home Directory </td><td colspan=“1”> Shell</td></tr><tr valign=“top”><td colspan=“1”> alias </td><td colspan=“1”> nofiles </td><td colspan=“1”> /var/qmail/alias </td><td colspan=“1”> /usr/bin/true</td></tr><tr valign=“top”><td colspan=“1”> qmaild </td><td colspan=“1”> nofiles </td><td colspan=“1”> /var/qmail </td><td colspan=“1”> /usr/bin/true</td></tr><tr valign=“top”><td colspan=“1”> qmaill </td><td colspan=“1”> nofiles </td><td colspan=“1”> /var/qmail </td><td colspan=“1”> /usr/bin/true</td></tr><tr valign=“top”><td colspan=“1”> qmailp </td><td colspan=“1”> nofiles </td><td colspan=“1”> /var/qmail </td><td colspan=“1”> /usr/bin/true</td></tr><tr valign=“top”><td colspan=“1”> qmailq </td><td colspan=“1”> qmail </td><td colspan=“1”> /var/qmail </td><td colspan=“1”> /usr/bin/true</td></tr><tr valign=“top”><td colspan=“1”> qmailr </td><td colspan=“1”> qmail </td><td colspan=“1”> /var/qmail </td><td colspan=“1”> /usr/bin/true</td></tr><tr valign=“top”><td colspan=“1”> qmails </td><td colspan=“1”> qmail </td><td colspan=“1”> /var/qmail </td><td colspan=“1”> /usr/bin/true</td></tr></table>

    or you can look at the file INSTALL.ids for commands for your O/S.
    For linux I use:
/usr/sbin/groupadd -g 201 nofiles
/usr/sbin/groupadd -g 202 qmail
/usr/sbin/useradd -u 201 -g nofiles -d /var/qmail/alias -m -k /dev/null -s /bin/true -c 'qmail server' alias
/usr/sbin/useradd -u 202 -g nofiles -d /var/qmail  -s /bin/true -c 'qmail server' qmaild
/usr/sbin/useradd -u 203 -g nofiles -d /var/qmail  -s /bin/true -c 'qmail server' qmaill
/usr/sbin/useradd -u 204 -g nofiles -d /var/qmail  -s /bin/true -c 'qmail server' qmailp
/usr/sbin/useradd -u 205 -g qmail -d /var/qmail  -s /bin/true -c 'qmail server' qmailq
/usr/sbin/useradd -u 206 -g qmail -d /var/qmail  -s /bin/true -c 'qmail server' qmailr
/usr/sbin/useradd -u 207 -g qmail -d /var/qmail  -s /bin/true -c 'qmail server' qmails

<list><ul><li>Create the initial entries in the LDAP database for the qmail-ldap structure. Create a file <tt>qmail-ldap.ldif</tt> with the following contents, modified as needed for your setup:</li></ul></list>

dn: dc=MrZesty,dc=net
objectclass: dcObject
objectclass: organization
o: MrZesty dot Net
dc: MrZesty

dn: cn=Manager,dc=MrZesty,dc=net
objectclass: organizationalRole
cn: Manager

dn: ou=qmail, dc=MrZesty, dc=net
objectclass: top
objectclass: organizationalUnit
ou: qmail
    Now load the ldif file into the LDAP directory:
    <tt>ldapadd -vxc -h localhost -D 'cn=manager,dc=mrzesty,dc=net' -w managers_password -f qmail-ldap.ldif</tt>

<list><ul><li>Make sure you are in your qmail-1.03 source directory, and run:</li></ul></list>

    <tt>make setup check</tt>

<list><ul><li>Configure qmail with default values (use the mail server name - not the machine name below):</li></ul></list>

echo 'localhost' > /var/qmail/control/ldapserver
echo 'ou=qmail, dc=mrzesty, dc=net' > /var/qmail/control/ldapbasedn
echo `id -u vmail` > /var/qmail/control/ldapuid
echo `id -g vmail` > /var/qmail/control/ldapgid
echo '/var/qmail/maildirs' > /var/qmail/control/ldapmessagestore
echo '20000000' > /var/qmail/control/defaultquotasize
echo 'You are near your quota for email.  You will need to delete some messages from the server.' > /var/qmail/control/quotawarning
echo 5 > /var/qmail/control/tarpitcount
echo '/var/qmail/bin/' > /var/qmail/control/dirmaker
echo '' > /var/qmail/control/defaulthost
echo 0 > /var/qmail/control/ldaplocaldelivery
cp dirmaker /var/qmail/bin/
chmod 755 /var/qmail/bin/dirmaker

<list><ul><li>Create default system aliases, and define who receives them:</li></ul></list>

echo '[email protected]' > ~alias/.qmail-postmaster; chmod 644 ~alias/.qmail-postmaster
echo '|cat /dev/null' > ~alias/.qmail-mailer-daemon; chmod 644 ~alias/.qmail-mailer-daemon
echo '[email protected]' > ~alias/.qmail-root; chmod 644 ~alias/.qmail-root
echo '[email protected]' > ~alias/.qmail-abuse; chmod 644 ~alias/.qmail-abuse
cp /var/qmail/rc
chmod 755 /var/qmail/rc

<list><ul><li>Download <uri strref=“”/> and install it as <tt>/var/qmail/bin/qmailctl</tt>.</li></ul></list>

cd /etc/rc.d/init.d; ln -s /var/qmail/bin/qmailctl qmail
cd /etc/rc.d/rc0.d; ln -s ../init.d/qmail K30qmail
cd /etc/rc.d/rc1.d; ln -s ../init.d/qmail K30qmail
cd /etc/rc.d/rc2.d; ln -s ../init.d/qmail S30qmail
cd /etc/rc.d/rc3.d; ln -s ../init.d/qmail S80qmail
cd /etc/rc.d/rc6.d; ln -s ../init.d/qmail K30qmail
    Remember to make it executable (755).
    Now configure daemontools:
mkdir -p /var/qmail/supervise/qmail-send/log
mkdir -p /var/qmail/supervise/qmail-smtpd/log

Create <tt>/var/qmail/supervise/qmail-send/run</tt>:</p>

ulimit -n 4096
exec /var/qmail/rc

Create <tt>/var/qmail/supervise/qmail-send/log/run</tt>:

exec /usr/bin/setuidgid qmaill /usr/bin/multilog t s999999 /var/log/qmail
cp /var/qmail/supervise/qmail-smtpd/run

Create <tt>/var/qmail/supervise/qmail-smtpd/log/run</tt>:

exec /usr/bin/setuidgid qmaill /usr/bin/multilog t s999999 /var/log/qmail/smtpd

Set the new scripts as executable:

chmod 755 /var/qmail/supervise/qmail-send/run
chmod 755 /var/qmail/supervise/qmail-send/log/run
chmod 755 /var/qmail/supervise/qmail-smtpd/run
chmod 755 /var/qmail/supervise/qmail-smtpd/log/run

mkdir -p /var/log/qmail/smtpd
chown qmaill /var/log/qmail /var/log/qmail/smtpd
ln -s /etc/service /service
update-service --add /var/qmail/supervise/qmail-send
update-service --add /var/qmail/supervise/qmail-smtpd
start svscan
/etc/init.d/qmail-ldap stop

<list><ul><li>Set up relay permissions for certain IP's in <tt>/var/qmail/control/qmail-smtpd.cdb</tt>:</li></ul></list>,RELAYCLIENT='',RBLSMTPD='',SMTPAUTH=''
    From <tt>/var/qmail/control</tt>, run: <tt>make</tt>

<list><ul><li>If you're using ReiserFS partitions, you may want to optimze the performance of the partition containing your /var/qmail/queue directory.</li></ul></list>

    Add <tt>noatime,nodiratime</tt> to your <tt>/etc/fstab</tt> file. For example:

<pre> /dev/hda6 /var reiserfs defaults,noatime,nodiratime 0 0 </pre>

    (Of course you'll have to reboot before this takes effect...) You may want to read <uri strref=""/> for a more detailed explanation.

<list><ul><li>Unknown to me - you end up with TLS SMTP encryption installed - without even asking! qmail will advertise the capability of receiving encrypted SMTP messages, but it won't work until you set up a server certificate (This one is a self-signed certificate for 10 years - 3650 days):</li></ul></list>

  <tt>openssl req -new -x509 -nodes -out /var/qmail/control/cert.pem -days 3650 -keyout /var/qmail/control/cert.pem</tt>
chmod 640 /var/qmail/control/cert.pem
chown qmaild:qmail /var/qmail/control/cert.pem

<list><ul><li>Start it up and see if it works! <tt>/etc/init.d/qmail start</tt> Test your TLS installation by sending a test message to [email protected] and look for the return header something like:</li></ul></list>

Received: from unknown (HELO ( (envelope-sender )
        by 0 (qmail-ldap-1.03) with RC4-SHA encrypted SMTP

virtualdomains (wildcard domain aliasing):

I have an old domain - I wanted to set up [email protected] to be automatically rewritten to [email protected]

To do that you must add the domain to the control/rcpthosts file <strong>only!</strong> (not to locals like you would normally do), then create a file called virtualdomains in your qmail/control directory. <p>Assuming that you set ldaplocaldelivery to 0 (as above), then the line in your virtualdomains file would look like:</p>

and create a file called ~alias/.qmail-mrzesty-default that contains:

| forward ${DEFAULT}

If you left <tt>ldaplocaldelivery</tt> on (1 or no file), then you must specify the user to handle the email aliasing. Your virtualdomains line would be:

<tt></tt> <p>if you wanted the user 'alias' to handle the direction of the mail. If you wanted a regular user to handle the mail, you could just as easily make it</p><p><tt></tt></p><p>then by creating a ~ian/.qmail-default file, all mail for would be directed through the instructions in ~ian/.qmail-default</p>


<uri strref=“”/>

If you get: <p> <tt>421 out of memory (#4.3.0)</tt></p><p>You need to check the permissions on /var/qmail/bin/auth_smtp! auth_smtp must be executable by qmaild. Try a chmod 755 /var/qmail/bin/auth_smtp</p>

telnet localhost 25
Connected to
Escape character is '^]'.
auth plain
421 out of memory (#4.3.0)
535 auth failure

If you want to test smtp-auth and 'auth login' you will need to generate base64 encoded versions of your username and password (I'm using PHP here):

echo '<?php print base64_encode('ian').'\n'; ?>' | php

echo '<?php print base64_encode('password').'\n'; ?>' | php

… then supply when prompted by VXNlcm5hbWU6 (Username:) and UGFzc3dvcmQ6 (Password:)

telnet localhost 25
Connected to
Escape character is '^]'.
auth login
334 VXNlcm5hbWU6
334 UGFzc3dvcmQ6
235 go ahead
250 flushed

If you authenticate successfully, you will see '235 go ahead'.


I would suggest getting the ezmlm-idx patch <uri strref=“,”/> it has a lot more features and the ability to use MySQL or PostreSQL for the list storage.

To add a footer to each message sent to the list for regular ezmlm-0.53, edit the ~user/maillist/editor file and add: <p><tt>| cat - /var/qmail/alias/maillist/text/footer</tt> to the beginning of the ezmlm-send line.</p><p>For example:</p>

| cat - /var/qmail/alias/maillist/text/footer |/usr/local/bin/ezmlm/ezmlm-send '/var/qmail/alias/maillist'
|/usr/local/bin/ezmlm/ezmlm-warn '/var/qmail/alias/maillist' || exit 0

Then create the /var/qmail/alias/maillist/text/footer file with instructions or notes about the mailing list.

OpenLDAP Replication notes:

Add the following to the primary openldap server's slapd.conf:

replogfile /usr/local/var/openldap-slurp/slurpd.replog <p>replica binddn='cn=manager,dc=mrzesty,dc=net' bindmethod=simple credentials=managers-password</p><p>Add the following two lines to the slave's slapd.conf:</p><p>updatedn 'cn=manager,dc=mrzesty,dc=net'</p><p>updateref ldap://</p><p>Start slapd and slurpd on the primary ldap server, and start slapd on the secondary. If you already have data in the ldap database - you should manually copy the /usr/local/var/openldap-ldbm directory and its files to the slave server - before starting slapd and slurpd.</p>

qmail-ldap.txt · Last modified: 2020/02/13 22:55 (external edit)

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